The CNI program offers an integrated multidisciplinary team approach. Special emphasis is placed on the neurological control mechanisms associated with weight gain and weight management. A comprehensive diagnostic and monitoring approach is used during the program to help patients achieve success. This includes monitoring laboratory values, body composition, movement efficiency, along with heart and lung function. To help achieve weight management goals the Institute offers behavioral modification, nutritional supplementation, dietary recommendations, exercise prescription and educational support. Sometimes special testing is required to address unsuccessful attempts at weight loss. This may include access to specialized laboratory profiles through prestigious facilities such as Mayo Clinic laboratories.
Obesity is a multisystem disorder which involves the nervous system, a perspective often overlooked. Obesity often involves poor choices combined with varying degrees of impaired neuroendocrine regulation. There is often a significant behavioral and cognitive contribution to weight gain. There are numerous specialties within neurology relevant to weight loss and weight management such as neuroendocrinology and neuropsychology.
Neuroendocrinology is the study of the anatomical and physiological interactions between the nervous and endocrine (hormonal) systems: The neuroendocrine system regulates hunger, metabolism, eating, drink behavior, and energy utilization. Neuropsychology represents a branch of psychology concerned with how brain functions influence human behavior surrounding lifestyle choices, eating habits, and exercise.
The moto for the weight loss and management program offered by the Chicago Neuroscience Institute (CNI) is “Just Lose It”. The name was chosen because it is simple, easy to remember, and exemplifies the commitment. The weight loss is physician managed and includes regular biomonitoring and outcome measures. Each participant is offered a multidisciplinary team approach to help facilitate a good outcome. The evaluation process includes a history and physical examination. Additional testing such as lung (pulmonary) function, a resting heart test (EKG), body composition analysis, and laboratory evaluation is often performed. Specialized physical performance tests may also be included. This may include quantitative gait (walking) assessment. Body composition analysis is often performed at regular intervals throughout the program. Body composition analysis is used to assess changes in the relationships between muscle, body water and fat.
CNI Weight Loss/Management Program Goals include:
· Improve/optimize body mass index
· Improve/optimize body weight
· Improve/optimize percent body fat
· Improve/increase lean (muscle) mass
· Improve/optimize internal body water ratios
· Facilitate self-management of body composition
· Improve cardiovascular risk factors
· Improve movement/walking efficiency
· Develop good dietary habits
· Develop good exercise habits
· Develop an adequate state of mindfulness
· Learn how to set and monitor new goals
· Improve confidence and self-image
· Improve lung capacity and function
There are many health conditions associated with obesity. One of the most common complications of obesity is referred to as metabolic syndrome. This represents a pre-diabetic state which involves numerous bodily systems. If left untreated metabolic syndrome often progresses to insulin-dependent diabetes. The single most common modifiable risk factor for metabolic syndrome and diabetes is body composition. The complications of obesity include:
Neurological disorders related to or exacerbated by obesity include stroke, headaches, carpal tunnel syndrome, polyneuropathy, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, meralgia paresthetica depression, cognitive impairment, chronic pain syndrome, dementia and multiple sclerosis (Luo & Dun, 2012). Obesity is also associated with cognitive decline and enhanced vulnerability to brain injury (Bruce-Keller, Keller, & Morrision, 2009). Obesity has been shown to contribute to atrophy (shrinkage) of the brain. Reduced brain volume has been associated with impaired performance on cognitive testing (Fotuhi & Lubinski, 2013).
The prevalence of polyneuropathy is higher in obese individuals than those with normal blood glucose (sugar) levels. Research has demonstrated that diabetes, prediabetes, and obesity likely represent the most common and modifiable causes of neuropathy (Callaghan, Xia, & Reynold, 2016). Cognitive impairment can occur secondary to obesity-induced alterations in specialized brain structures such as the hypothalamus (O’Brien, Hinder, Callaghan, & Feldman, 2017). Obesity is a risk factor for young onset ischemic stroke through an association which may be partially mediated through related conditions such as arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or other variables associated with the condition (Mitchel et al, 2015).
Obesity adds to the burden of low back pain and degenerative disc disease (Sheng et al., 2017). In fact, abdominal obesity is considered one of the most important modifiable underlying mechanisms of lumbar disc degeneration (Yang et al., 2016). Obesity also leads to functional limitations in movement secondary to the added load placed on joints and other supportive tissues of the musculoskeletal system (Wearing et al., 2006). In summary, there is a greater prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and chronic pain syndromes in obese individuals.
The body mass index (BMI) does not always reveal true obesity and related risk. Too often the simple calculation is based on height and weight is used to classify individuals. For example, an individual with a high degree of muscle will have a higher BMI; thus, making it appear they may be overweight or obese. A simple BMI calculation also does not reveal fat distribution, muscle distribution or water distribution in the body. Specialized technology is required to perform adequate body composition analysis which includes. This technology is available here at the Chicago Neuroscience Institute
What is Obesity?Obesity is a disorder characterized by excessive body fat which increases the risk for acquiring various health problems. It also compromises the efficiency of physical movement. Body fat develops within different anatomic locations such as under the skin, around organs, in the abdomen, and within muscle. The distribution of fat differs between individuals based on the interaction of numerous genetic, metabolic and physical factors. The distribution of fat can be evaluated through special body composition analysis methods offered here at the Chicago Neuroscience Institute (CNI).
Overweight versus ObesityThe conditions of being overweight or obese both refer to excess bodyweight, although to different degrees. Being overweight means having more body weight than is considered normal or healthy for one’s age or build. In contrast, obesity refers to generally being more than 30 pound overweight or having a body mass index (BMI) greater than 30. Quantitative body composition analysis is used to help determine the amount and distribution of body fat.
Obesity Classifications (National Institutes of Health)
a clinically designed program to guide patients on
the path to better health. Inside the package is a program guide and targeted nutritional support. .